Diabetes and endocrinology

Submitted by admin on Wed, 04/08/2020 - 20:28

Doctors in diabetes and endocrinology

Prof. Salah Abusnana

Consultant Diabetes and Endocrinology / Head of Department

Dr. Furat Wahab

Consultant Diabetes & Endocrinology

Dr. Nawal Almutwaa

Consultant Diabetologist & Endocrinologist

Dr. Muhannad Eliwe

Consultant Diabetes & Endocrinology

Tojan Adel Mahmoud Hassan

Certified Diabetes Educator

Ms. Jennifer Clark



Endocrine Services

The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland. It makes a hormone called thyroid hormone, which is involved in regulating the body’s metabolism. The gland is shaped like a butterfly and located in the front of the neck below the Adam’s apple. 

Two conditions might develop due to Thyroid Gland Disorder:
1-    Hypothyroidism (occurs when the gland stops making enough hormone).
2-    Hyperthyroidism (occurs when the gland overactive and make too much hormone).
3-    Thyroid benign and malignant tumors

Parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone. This hormone helps maintain an appropriate balance of calcium in the bloodstream and in tissues that depend on calcium for proper functioning.

Two conditions might develop due to Parathyroid Gland Disorder:

1-      Hyperparathyroidism:

Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs due to overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) which causes high calcium levels in the blood leads to a variety of health problems.  Or Secondary hyperparathyroidism occurs due to another disease that first causes low calcium levels in the body.  Over time, increased parathyroid hormone levels occur.

2-    Hypoparathyroidism:

uncommon condition in which your body produces abnormally low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) leads to abnormally low calcium levels in your blood and bones and to an increase of phosphorus in your blood.


Hypopituitarism is a rare disorder in which your pituitary gland fails to produce one or more hormones or does not produce enough hormones. These hormone deficiencies can affect any number of your body's routine functions, such as growth, blood pressure or reproduction. Symptoms typically vary, based on which hormone or hormones you are missing. 

The most common disease associated with Pituitary Gland Disorder is Growth disorders. If you have hypopituitarism, you will likely need to take medication for the rest of your life. Medication helps replace the missing hormones, which helps control your symptoms.

Adrenal glands produce hormones that help regulate your metabolism, immune system, blood pressure and other essential functions.
There are two main categories of adrenal insufficiency: 
1-    Primary adrenal insufficiency occurs when adrenal glands produce too little cortisol and, often, too little aldosterone. Most often, this takes the form of a long-term (chronic) disease called Addison’s disease. 
2-    Secondary adrenal insufficiency when the pituitary gland makes an insufficient amount of a hormone called “adrenocorticotropic hormone.” This hormone stimulates the adrenal gland to produce cortisol. If the pituitary gland somehow is damaged or altered, it can affect adrenal gland cortisol secretion, even if the adrenal glands are healthy. Secondary adrenal insufficiency is most commonly caused by medications, such as prednisone. 

Hypogonadism occurs when your sex glands produce little or no sex hormones. The sex glands, also called gonads, are primarily the testes in men and the ovaries in women. 

Sex hormones help control secondary sex characteristics, such as breast development in women, testicular development in men, and pubic hair growth. Sex hormones also play a role in the menstrual cycle and sperm production.

Two conditions come under this service:

1-    Hypokalemia refers to a lower than normal potassium level in your bloodstream. Potassium helps carry electrical signals to cells in your body. It is critical to the proper functioning of nerve and muscles cells, particularly heart muscle cells.
2-    Hyponatremia occurs when the concentration of sodium in your blood is abnormally low. Sodium is an electrolyte, and it helps regulate the amount of water that's in and around your cells.

Two conditions come under this service:

1-    Hypercalcemia (too much calcium in blood). Hypercalcemia can weaken your bones, create kidney stones, and interfere with how your heart and brain work.
2-    Hypocalcemia (too little calcium in blood). Calcium has many important roles in your body: Calcium is key to the conduction of electricity in your body.

Vitamin D deficiency when the level of vitamin D in your body is too low can cause your bones to become thin, brittle or misshapen. Although the amount of vitamin D adults get from their diets is often less than what's recommended, exposure to sunlight can make up for the difference.  Otherwise, vitamin supplement might benefit you.

Osteoporosis is a condition when the quality and density of bone is reduced. It causes bones to become weak and brittle so that a fall or even mild stresses such as bending over or coughing can cause a fracture. Osteoporosis-related fractures most commonly occur in the hip, wrist or spine.

Osteomalacia refers to a marked softening of your bones, most often caused by severe vitamin D deficiency. The softened bones of children and young adults with osteomalacia can lead to bowing during growth, especially in weight-bearing bones of the legs. Osteomalacia in older adults can lead to fractures.

Treatment for osteomalacia involves providing enough vitamin D and calcium, both required to harden and strengthen bones, and treating disorders that might cause the condition.

Menopause is the time that marks the end of your menstrual cycles. It is diagnosed after you have gone 12 months without a menstrual period. Menopause can happen in your 40s or 50s. It is a natural biological process. But the physical symptoms, such as hot flashes, and emotional symptoms of menopause may disrupt your sleep, lower your energy, or affect emotional health. There are many effective treatments available, from lifestyle adjustments to hormone therapy.

Two conditions come under this service:

1-    Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that develops when your pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone during adulthood. When this happens, your bones increase in size, including those of your hands, feet, and face. 
2-    Cushing syndrome occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol for a long time. Treatments for Cushing syndrome can return your body's cortisol production to normal and noticeably improve your symptoms. The earlier treatment begins, the better your chances for recovery.

Hirsutism is a condition in women that results in excessive growth of dark or coarse hair in a male-like pattern face, chest and back. With hirsutism, extra hair growth often arises from excess male hormones (androgens), primarily testosterone. Self-care methods and effective treatment options are available for women who wish to treat hirsutism

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. 

The exact cause of PCOS is unknown. Early diagnosis and treatment along with weight loss may reduce the risk of long-term complications such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Metabolic Disorder Services

Obesity is a complex disease involving an excessive amount of body fat. Obesity is not just a cosmetic concern. It is a medical problem that increases your risk of other diseases and health problems, such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure and certain cancers.

Dietary changes increased physical activity and behavior changes can help you lose weight. Prescription medications and weight-loss procedures such as bariatric surgeries are additional options for treating obesity. All these services are available in our center. 

It is a rare condition, is low blood glucose in people who do not have diabetes. There are two kinds of non-diabetic hypoglycemia:
1-    Reactive hypoglycemia, which happens within a few hours of eating a meal (Dumping syndrome or rapid gastric emptying).
2-    Fasting hypoglycemia, which may be related to a disease

Cholesterol is a substance found in your blood. Your body needs cholesterol to build healthy cells, but high levels of cholesterol can increase your risk of heart disease.

With Hyperlipidemia or high cholesterol, you can develop fatty deposits in your blood vessels. Eventually, these deposits grow, making it difficult for enough blood to flow through your arteries. Sometimes, those deposits can break suddenly and form a clot that causes a heart attack or stroke. A healthy diet, regular exercise and sometimes medication can help reduce high cholesterol.

High blood pressure is a common condition in which the long-term force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems. Hypertension can be secondary to endocrine cause, which can be investigated in the endocrine clinic.

You can have high blood pressure (hypertension) for years without any symptoms. Even without symptoms, damage to blood vessels and your heart continues and can be detected. Uncontrolled high blood pressure increases your risk of serious health problems, including heart attack and stroke. Fortunately, high blood pressure can be easily detected. And once you know you have high blood pressure; you can work with your doctor to control it.

Diabetes Mellitus Services

Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy.

Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults.

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose) an important source of fuel for your body.

With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin (a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells) or does not produce enough insulin to maintain normal glucose levels.

Gestational diabetes is diabetes diagnosed for the first-time during pregnancy (gestation). Like other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes affects how your cells use sugar (glucose). Gestational diabetes causes high blood sugar that can affect your pregnancy and your baby's health. 

In women with gestational diabetes, blood sugar usually returns to normal soon after delivery. But if you have had gestational diabetes, you have a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes. You will need to be tested for changes in blood sugar more often.

Prediabetes means you have a higher than normal blood sugar level. It is not high enough to be considered type 2 diabetes yet, but without lifestyle changes, adults and children with prediabetes are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.

Eating healthy foods, making physical activity part of your daily routine and staying at a healthy weight can help bring your blood sugar level back to normal. 

Many genetic syndromes are accompanied by an increased incidence of diabetes mellitus and include syndromes caused by a single gene mutation and syndromes caused by a chromosomal abnormality. Such as Maturity onset diabetes in the young (MODY). This condition is an uncommon cause of diabetes that may be mistaken for type 2 diabetes because treatment of both conditions does not require insulin, at least in the early stages of the disease

Insulin pump therapy is a treatment option that facilitates achieving improved blood glucose control and lifestyle flexibility. These advantages are derived from the physiologic mode of insulin delivery and the pharmacologic advantages of using rapid-acting insulin.

Patients who are sufficiently motivated and capable can learn to use the pump so that insulin adjustments can be made to compensate for changing circumstances.

Long-term complications of diabetes develop gradually. The longer you have diabetes and the less controlled your blood sugar the higher the risk of complications. Eventually, diabetes complications may be disabling or even life-threatening. 

Possible complications include:
1-    Kidney damage (nephropathy).
2-    Eye damage (retinopathy). 
3-    Nerve damage (neuropathy)
4-    Foot damage. 
5-    Cardiovascular Disease 

Looking after feet is particularly important for diabetic patients, specifically patients with prolonged diabetes duration. Diabetes may cause damage to your nerves or blood vessels, especially in your feet. This cause you to lose feeling in your feet. You may not feel a cut, a blister or a sore. Foot injuries such as these can cause ulcers and infections. Serious cases may even lead to amputation. Damage to the blood vessels can also mean that your feet do not get enough blood and oxygen. It is harder for your foot to heal if you do get a sore or infection.

Diabetic Foot care Clinic at UHS provides multidisciplinary foot care for patients with diabetic foot problems. We offer blood testing, assessment & specialist treatments by a multidisciplinary team of Internal medicine specialists and Podiatrist.